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Cloud Native Storage for vSphere

Cloud Native Storage (CNS) for vSphere exposes vSphere storage and features to Kubernetes users and was introduced in vSphere 6.7 U3. CNS is made up of two parts, a Container Storage Interface (CSI) driver for Kubernetes used to provision storage on vSphere and the CNS Control Plane within vCenter allowing visibility to persistent volumes through the new CNS UI within vCenter.

CNS fully supports Storage Policy-Based Management (SPBM) to provision volumes. SPBM is a feature of VMware vSphere that allows an administrator to match VM workload requirements against storage array capabilities, with the help of VM Storage Profiles. This storage profile can have multiple array capabilities and data services, depending on the underlying storage you use. HPE primary storage (HPE Primera, Nimble Storage, Nimble Storage dHCI, and 3PAR) has the largest user base of vVols in the market, due to its simplicity to deploy and ease of use.


Check out the tutorial available on YouTube in the Video Gallery on how to configure and use HPE storage with Cloud Native Storage for vSphere.

Watch the video in its entirety or skip to configuring Tanzu with HPE storage or configuring the vSphere CSI Driver with HPE storage.

Feature Comparison

Volume parameters available to the vSphere CSI Driver will be dependent upon options exposed through the vSphere SPBM and may not include all volume features available. Please refer to the HPE Primera: VMware ESXi Implementation Guide or VMware vSphere Virtual Volumes on HPE Nimble Storage Implementation Guide for list of available features.

For a list of available volume parameters in the HPE CSI Driver for Kubernetes, refer to the respective CSP.

Feature HPE CSI Driver vSphere CSI Driver
vCenter Cloud Native Storage (CNS) UI Support No GA
Dynamic Block PV Provisioning (ReadWriteOnce access mode) GA GA (vVOL)
Dynamic File Provisioning (ReadWriteMany access mode) GA GA (vSan Only)
Volume Snapshots (CSI) GA Alpha (2.4.0)
Volume Cloning from VolumeSnapshot (CSI) GA No
Volume Cloning from PVC (CSI) GA No
Volume Expansion (CSI) GA GA (offline only)
Raw Block Volume (CSI) GA Alpha
Generic Ephemeral Volumes (CSI) GA GA
Inline Ephemeral Volumes (CSI) GA No
Topology (CSI) No GA
Volume Health (CSI) No GA (vSan only)
CSI Controller multiple replica support No GA
Volume Encryption GA GA (via VMcrypt)
Volume Mutator1 GA No
Volume Groups1 GA No
Snapshot Groups1 GA No
Peer Persistence Replication3 GA No4

1 = Feature comparison based upon HPE CSI Driver for Kubernetes v2.1.1 and the vSphere CSI Driver v2.4.1
2 = HPE and VMware fully support features listed as GA for their respective CSI drivers.
3 = The HPE Remote Copy Peer Persistence feature of the HPE CSI Driver for Kubernetes is only available with HPE Alletra 9000 and Primera storage systems.
4 = Peer Persistence is an HPE Storage specific platform feature that isn't abstracted up the vSphere CSI Driver. Peer Persistence works with the vSphere CSI Driver when using VMFS datastores.

Please refer to vSphere CSI Driver - Supported Features Matrix for the most up-to-date information.


When considering to use block storage within Kubernetes clusters running on VMware, customers need to evaluate which data protocol (FC or iSCSI) is primarily used within their virtualized environment. This will help best determine which CSI driver can be deployed within your Kubernetes clusters.


Due to limitations when exposing physical hardware (i.e. Fibre Channel Host Bus Adapters) to virtualized guest OSs and if iSCSI is not an available, HPE recommends the use of the VMware vSphere CSI driver to deliver block-based persistent storage from HPE Primera, Nimble Storage, Nimble Storage dHCI or 3PAR arrays to Kubernetes clusters within VMware environments for customers who are using the Fibre Channel protocol.

The HPE CSI Driver for Kubernetes does not support N_Port ID Virtualization (NPIV).

Protocol HPE CSI Driver for Kubernetes vSphere CSI driver
FC Not supported Supported*
iSCSI Supported Supported*

* = Limited to the SPBM implementation of the underlying storage array


This guide will cover the configuration and deployment of the vSphere CSI driver. Cloud Native Storage for vSphere uses the VASA provider and Storage Policy Based Management (SPBM) to create First Class Disks on supported arrays.

CNS supports VMware vSphere 6.7 U3 and higher.

Configuring the VASA provider

Refer to the following guides to configure the VASA provider and create a vVol Datastore.

Storage Array Guide
HPE Alletra 9000 HPE Alletra 9000: VMware ESXi Implementation Guide
HPE Primera VMware vVols with HPE Primera Storage
HPE Nimble Storage Working with VMware Virtual Volumes
HPE Nimble Storage dHCI & HPE Alletra 5000/6000 HPE Nimble Storage dHCI and VMware vSphere New Servers Deployment Guide
HPE 3PAR Implementing VMware Virtual Volumes on HPE 3PAR StoreServ
Configuring a VM Storage Policy

Once the vVol Datastore is created, create a VM Storage Policy. From the vSphere Web Client, click Menu and select Policies and Profiles.

Select Policies and Profiles

Click on VM Storage Policies, and then click Create.

Create VM Storage Policy

Next provide a name for the policy. Click NEXT.

Specify name of Storage Policy

Under Datastore specific rules, select either:

  • Enable rules for "NimbleStorage" storage
  • Enable rules for "HPE Primera" storage

Click NEXT.

Enable rules

Next click ADD RULE. Choose from the various options available to your array.

Add Rule

Below is an example of a VM Storage Policy for Primera. This may vary depending on your requirements and options available within your array. Once complete, click NEXT.

Add Rule

Under Storage compatibility, verify the correct vVol datastore is shown as compatible to the options chosen in the previous screen. Click NEXT.

Compatible Storage

Verify everything looks correct and click FINISH. Repeat this process for any additional Storage Policies you may need.

Click Finish

Now that we have configured a Storage Policy, we can proceed with the deployment of the vSphere CSI driver.

Install the vSphere Cloud Provider Interface (CPI)

This is adapted from the following tutorial, please read over to understand all of the vSphere, firewall and guest OS requirements.


The following is a simplified single-site configuration to demonstrate how to deploy the vSphere CPI and CSI drivers. Make sure to adapt the configuration to match your environment and needs.

Check for ProviderID

Check if ProviderID is already configured on your cluster.

kubectl get nodes -o jsonpath='{range .items[*]}{.spec.providerID}{"\n"}{end}'

If this command returns empty, then proceed with configuring the vSphere Cloud Provider.

If the ProviderID is set, then you can proceed directly to installing the vSphere CSI Driver.

$ kubectl get nodes -o jsonpath='{range .items[*]}{.spec.providerID}{"\n"}{end}'

Create a CPI ConfigMap

Create a vsphere.conf file.


The vsphere.conf is a hardcoded filename used by the vSphere Cloud Provider. Do not change it otherwise the Cloud Provider will not deploy correctly.

Set the vCenter server FQDN or IP and vSphere datacenter object name to match your environment.

Copy and paste the following.

# Global properties in this section will be used for all specified vCenters unless overridden in vCenter section.
  port: 443
  # Set insecureFlag to true if the vCenter uses a self-signed cert
  insecureFlag: true
  # Where to find the Secret used for authentication to vCenter
  secretName: cpi-global-secret
  secretNamespace: kube-system

# vcenter section
    server: <vCenter FQDN or IP>
      - <vCenter Datacenter name>

Create the ConfigMap from the vsphere.conf file.

kubectl create configmap cloud-config --from-file=vsphere.conf -n kube-system

Create a CPI Secret

The below YAML declarations are meant to be created with kubectl create. Either copy the content to a file on the host where kubectl is being executed, or copy & paste into the terminal, like this:

kubectl create -f-
< paste the YAML >
^D (CTRL + D)

Next create the CPI Secret.

apiVersion: v1
kind: Secret
  name: cpi-global-secret
  namespace: kube-system
  <vCenter FQDN or IP>.username: "Administrator@vsphere.local"
  <vCenter FQDN or IP>.password: "VMware1!"


The username and password within the Secret are case-sensitive.

Inspect the Secret to verify it was created successfully.

kubectl describe secret cpi-global-secret -n kube-system

The output is similar to this:

Name:         cpi-global-secret
Namespace:    kube-system
Labels:       <none>
Annotations:  <none>

Type:  Opaque

====  8 bytes  27 bytes

Check that all nodes are tainted

Before installing vSphere Cloud Controller Manager, make sure all nodes are tainted with When the kubelet is started with “external” cloud provider, this taint is set on a node to mark it as unusable. After a controller from the cloud provider initializes this node, the kubelet removes this taint.

To find your node names, run the following command.

kubectl get nodes

NAME    STATUS   ROLES                  AGE   VERSION
cp1     Ready    control-plane,master   46m   v1.20.1
node1   Ready    <none>                 44m   v1.20.1
node2   Ready    <none>                 44m   v1.20.1

To create the taint, run the following command for each node in your cluster.

kubectl taint node <node_name>

Verify the taint has been applied to each node.

kubectl describe nodes | egrep "Taints:|Name:"

The output is similar to this:

Name:               cp1
Name:               node1
Name:               node2

Deploy the CPI manifests

There are 3 manifests that must be deployed to install the vSphere Cloud Provider Interface (CPI). The following example applies the RBAC roles and the RBAC bindings to your Kubernetes cluster. It also deploys the Cloud Controller Manager in a DaemonSet.

kubectl apply -f
kubectl apply -f
kubectl apply -f

Verify that the CPI has been successfully deployed

Verify vsphere-cloud-controller-manager is running.

kubectl rollout status ds/vsphere-cloud-controller-manager -n kube-system
daemon set "vsphere-cloud-controller-manager" successfully rolled out


If you happen to make an error with the vsphere.conf, simply delete the CPI components and the ConfigMap, make any necessary edits to the vsphere.conf file, and reapply the steps above.

Now that the CPI is installed, we can proceed with deploying the vSphere CSI driver.

Install the vSphere Container Storage Interface (CSI) driver

The following has been adapted from the vSphere CSI driver installation guide. Refer to the official documentation for additional information on how to deploy the vSphere CSI driver.

Create a configuration file with vSphere credentials

Since we are connecting to block storage provided from an HPE Primera, Nimble Storage, Nimble Storage dHCI or 3PAR array, we will create a configuration file for block volumes.

Create a csi-vsphere.conf file.

Copy and paste the following:

cluster-id = "csi-vsphere-cluster"

[VirtualCenter "<IP or FQDN>"]
insecure-flag = "true"
user = "Administrator@vsphere.local"
password = "VMware1!"
port = "443"
datacenters = "<vCenter datacenter>"

Create a Kubernetes Secret for vSphere credentials

Create a Kubernetes Secret that will contain the configuration details to connect to your vSphere environment.

kubectl create secret generic vsphere-config-secret --from-file=csi-vsphere.conf -n kube-system

Verify that the Secret was created successfully.

kubectl get secret vsphere-config-secret -n kube-system
NAME                    TYPE     DATA   AGE
vsphere-config-secret   Opaque   1      43s

For security purposes, it is advised to remove the csi-vsphere.conf file.

Create RBAC, vSphere CSI Controller Deployment and vSphere CSI node DaemonSet

Check the official vSphere CSI Driver Github repo for the latest version.

kubectl apply -f
kubectl apply -f
kubectl apply -f
kubectl apply -f
kubectl apply -f
kubectl apply -f
kubectl apply -f
kubectl apply -f
kubectl apply -f
Verify the vSphere CSI driver deployment

Verify that the vSphere CSI driver has been successfully deployed using kubectl rollout status.

kubectl rollout status deployment/vsphere-csi-controller -n kube-system
deployment "vsphere-csi-controller" successfully rolled out

kubectl rollout status ds/vsphere-csi-node -n kube-system
daemon set "vsphere-csi-node" successfully rolled out

Verify that the vSphere CSI driver CustomResourceDefinition has been registered with Kubernetes.

kubectl describe csidriver/
Labels:       <none>
Annotations:  <none>
API Version:
Kind:         CSIDriver
  Creation Timestamp:  2020-11-21T06:27:23Z
  Managed Fields:
    API Version:
    Fields Type:  FieldsV1

    Manager:         kubectl-client-side-apply
    Operation:       Update
    Time:            2020-11-21T06:27:23Z
  Resource Version:  217131
  Self Link:         /apis/
  UID:               bcda2b5c-3c38-4256-9b91-5ed248395113
  Attach Required:    true
  Pod Info On Mount:  false
  Volume Lifecycle Modes:
Events:  <none>

Also verify that the vSphere CSINodes CustomResourceDefinition has been created.

kubectl get csinodes -o=jsonpath='{range .items[*]}{}{"\t"}{.spec.drivers[].name}{"\n"}{end}'

If there are no errors, the vSphere CSI driver has been successfully deployed.

Create a StorageClass

With the vSphere CSI driver deployed, lets create a StorageClass that can be used by the CSI driver.


The following steps will be using the example VM Storage Policy created at the beginning of this guide. If you do not have a Storage Policy available, refer to Configuring a VM Storage Policy before proceeding to the next steps.

kind: StorageClass
  name: primera-default-sc
  annotations: "true"
  storagepolicyname: "primera-default-profile"


With the vSphere CSI driver deployed and a StorageClass available, lets run through some tests to verify it is working correctly.

In this example, we will be deploying a stateful MongoDB application with 3 replicas. The persistent volumes deployed by the vSphere CSI driver will be created using the VM Storage Policy and placed on a compatible vVol datastore.

Create and Deploy a MongoDB Helm chart

This is an example MongoDB chart using a StatefulSet. The default volume size is 8Gi, if you want to change that use --set persistence.size=50Gi.

helm install mongodb \
    --set architecture=replicaset \
    --set replicaSetName=mongod \
    --set replicaCount=3 \
    --set auth.rootPassword=secretpassword \
    --set auth.username=my-user \
    --set auth.password=my-password \
    --set auth.database=my-database \

Verify that the MongoDB application has been deployed. Wait for pods to start running and PVCs to be created for each replica.

kubectl rollout status sts/mongodb

Inspect the Pods and PersistentVolumeClaims.

kubectl get pods,pvc
mongod-0   1/1     Running   0          90s
mongod-1   1/1     Running   0          71s
mongod-2   1/1     Running   0          44s

NAME                STATUS   VOLUME                                     CAPACITY   ACCESS MODES   STORAGECLASS         AGE
datadir-mongodb-0   Bound    pvc-fd3994fb-a5fb-460b-ab17-608a71cdc337   50Gi       RWO            primera-default-sc   13m
datadir-mongodb-1   Bound    pvc-a3755dbe-210d-4c7b-8ac1-bb0607a2c537   50Gi       RWO            primera-default-sc   13m
datadir-mongodb-2   Bound    pvc-22bab0f4-8240-48c1-91b1-3495d038533e   50Gi       RWO            primera-default-sc   13m

To interact with the Mongo replica set, you can connect to the StatefulSet.

kubectl exec -it sts/mongod bash

root@mongod-0:/# df -h /bitnami/mongodb
Filesystem      Size  Used Avail Use% Mounted on
/dev/sdb         49G  374M   47G   1% /bitnami/mongodb

We can see that the vSphere CSI driver has successfully provisioned and mounted the persistent volume to /bitnami/mongodb.

Verify Cloud Native Storage in vSphere

Verify that the volumes are now visible within the Cloud Native Storage interface by logging into the vSphere Web Client.

Click on Datacenter, then the Monitor tab. Expand Cloud Native Storage and highlight Container Volumes.

From here, we can see the persistent volumes that were created as part of our MongoDB deployment. These should match the kubectl get pvc output from earlier. You can also monitor their storage policy compliance status.

Container Volumes

This concludes the validations and verifies that all components of vSphere CNS (vSphere CPI and vSphere CSI drivers) are deployed and working correctly.


VMware provides enterprise grade support for the vSphere CSI driver. Please use VMware Support Services to file a customer support ticket to engage the VMware global support team.

For support information on the HPE CSI Driver for Kubernetes, visit Support. For support with other HPE related technologies, visit the Hewlett Packard Enterprise Support Center.